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Platinum Symbol

Platinum Symbol Beschreibung

Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. File:Platinum-symbol wimdezutter.be ist eine vektorisierte Version dieses Bildes. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. wimdezutter.be ‎( × Pixel, Dateigröße: 4 KB, MIME-Typ: image/png). Im Medienbetrachter öffnenKonfiguration. Perfekte Platinum Symbol Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Editorial-​Aufnahmen von Getty Images. Download hochwertiger Bilder, die man nirgendwo. Suchen Sie nach Platinum Symbol-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der.

Platinum Symbol

Wählen Sie aus "platinum Symbol" Stock-Fotos. Laden Sie Platinum Pt chemical element. Platinum Sign Platinum symbol on a glass square. Übertragen. Suchen Sie nach Platinum Symbol-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der. Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und.

The FTC is currently considering a request to allow manufacturers to mark jewelry as platinum even if it contains metals that are not part of the platinum group.

Acceptable alloys that are used with platinum are grouped together. Ask your jeweler to explain platinum content and markings if you are not sure which combination is the most suitable for your jewelry purchase.

Carly Wickell. She has a special interest in vintage jewelry. She contributed to The Spruce for over 11 years. Updated August 17, Here are some important platinum facts regarding content markings:.

Jewelry that contains at least parts per thousand of pure platinum may be marked or described as "Platinum". All three reactions are reversible.

Platinum II and platinum IV bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen.

Platinum IV oxide , PtO 2 , also known as ' Adams' catalyst ', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide KOH solutions and concentrated acids.

Unlike palladium acetate , platinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.

Zeise's salt , containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered.

Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene.

The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin , or cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs.

These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA , and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.

Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC.

For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics.

It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.

Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.

The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.

Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.

Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.

In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood, [53] a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.

Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.

Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.

This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.

This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.

Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.

Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.

During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities.

Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.

Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.

Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.

Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them.

Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum. One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.

The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.

It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen. Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.

PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter.

The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value.

Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.

Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.

The price of platinum, like other industrial commodities, is more volatie. It currently has a beta value of 1. During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, [73] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.

Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.

Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth.

Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver. It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.

As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.

The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group.

Main article: Isotopes of platinum. Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin. See also: Platinum album and Platinum color.

Chelated platinum Iron—platinum nanoparticle List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum group Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom.

Pure and Applied Chemistry. Period A horizontal row in the periodic table. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right.

Block Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp s , principal p , diffuse d , and fundamental f.

Atomic number The number of protons in an atom. Electron configuration The arrangements of electrons above the last closed shell noble gas.

Melting point The temperature at which the solid—liquid phase change occurs. Boiling point The temperature at which the liquid—gas phase change occurs.

Sublimation The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.

CAS number The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems.

Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.

Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Atomic radius, non-bonded Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced.

These values were determined using several different methods. Covalent radius Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond.

Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Electron affinity The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed.

Electronegativity Pauling scale The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. First ionisation energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state.

The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic.

Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge.

Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. An integrated supply risk index from 1 very low risk to 10 very high risk.

This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores.

The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity.

The percentage of an element produced in the top producing country. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves.

A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators. A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance.

It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.

A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material. It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain.

A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.

A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system.

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Jump to main content. Periodic Table. Glossary Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes.

Allotropes -. Glossary Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Fact box. Glossary Image explanation Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements.

Appearance The description of the element in its natural form. Biological role The role of the element in humans, animals and plants.

Natural abundance Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially.

Uses and properties. Image explanation. The image is based on Mayan character glyphs. The Mayans used platinum in jewellery.

A shiny, silvery-white metal as resistant to corrosion as gold. Platinum is used extensively for jewellery.

Its main use, however, is in catalytic converters for cars, trucks and buses. Platinum is used in the chemicals industry as a catalyst for the production of nitric acid, silicone and benzene.

It is also used as a catalyst to improve the efficiency of fuel cells. Platinum is also used to make optical fibres and LCDs, turbine blades, spark plugs, pacemakers and dental fillings.

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