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The growth occurs under low pressure below atmospheric pressure. It involves feeding a mixture of gases typically 1 to 99 methane to hydrogen into a chamber and splitting them to chemically active radicals in a plasma ignited by microwaves , hot filament , arc discharge , welding torch or laser.
A diamond simulant is a non-diamond material that is used to simulate the appearance of a diamond, and may be referred to as diamante. Cubic zirconia is the most common.
The gemstone moissanite silicon carbide can be treated as a diamond simulant, though more costly to produce than cubic zirconia.
Both are produced synthetically. Diamond enhancements are specific treatments performed on natural or synthetic diamonds usually those already cut and polished into a gem , which are designed to better the gemological characteristics of the stone in one or more ways.
These include laser drilling to remove inclusions, application of sealants to fill cracks, treatments to improve a white diamond's color grade, and treatments to give fancy color to a white diamond.
Coatings are increasingly used to give a diamond simulant such as cubic zirconia a more "diamond-like" appearance.
One such substance is diamond-like carbon —an amorphous carbonaceous material that has some physical properties similar to those of the diamond.
Advertising suggests that such a coating would transfer some of these diamond-like properties to the coated stone, hence enhancing the diamond simulant.
Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy should easily identify such a treatment. Early diamond identification tests included a scratch test relying on the superior hardness of diamond.
This test is destructive, as a diamond can scratch another diamond, and is rarely used nowadays. Instead, diamond identification relies on its superior thermal conductivity.
Electronic thermal probes are widely used in the gemological centers to separate diamonds from their imitations. These probes consist of a pair of battery-powered thermistors mounted in a fine copper tip.
One thermistor functions as a heating device while the other measures the temperature of the copper tip: if the stone being tested is a diamond, it will conduct the tip's thermal energy rapidly enough to produce a measurable temperature drop.
This test takes about two to three seconds. Whereas the thermal probe can separate diamonds from most of their simulants, distinguishing between various types of diamond, for example synthetic or natural, irradiated or non-irradiated, etc.
Those techniques are also used for some diamonds simulants, such as silicon carbide, which pass the thermal conductivity test. Optical techniques can distinguish between natural diamonds and synthetic diamonds.
They can also identify the vast majority of treated natural diamonds. Laboratories use techniques such as spectroscopy, microscopy and luminescence under shortwave ultraviolet light to determine a diamond's origin.
Several methods for identifying synthetic diamonds can be performed, depending on the method of production and the color of the diamond.
CVD diamonds can usually be identified by an orange fluorescence. Screening devices based on diamond type detection can be used to make a distinction between diamonds that are certainly natural and diamonds that are potentially synthetic.
Those potentially synthetic diamonds require more investigation in a specialized lab. Occasionally, large thefts of diamonds take place.
The gang broke through a perimeter fence and raided the cargo hold of a Swiss-bound plane. The gang have since been arrested and large amounts of cash and diamonds recovered.
The identification of stolen diamonds presents a set of difficult problems. Rough diamonds will have a distinctive shape depending on whether their source is a mine or from an alluvial environment such as a beach or river—alluvial diamonds have smoother surfaces than those that have been mined.
Determining the provenance of cut and polished stones is much more complex. The Kimberley Process was developed to monitor the trade in rough diamonds and prevent their being used to fund violence.
Before exporting, rough diamonds are certificated by the government of the country of origin. Some countries, such as Venezuela, are not party to the agreement.
The Kimberley Process does not apply to local sales of rough diamonds within a country. Diamonds may be etched by laser with marks invisible to the naked eye.
Lazare Kaplan , a US-based company, developed this method. However, whatever is marked on a diamond can readily be removed.
Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India. Their usage in engraving tools also dates to early human history.
In , the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier used a lens to concentrate the rays of the sun on a diamond in an atmosphere of oxygen , and showed that the only product of the combustion was carbon dioxide , proving that diamond is composed of carbon.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the mineral. For the gemstone, see Diamond gemstone. Allotrope of carbon often used as a gemstone and an abrasive.
The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit.
Main article: Material properties of diamond. See also: Crystallographic defects in diamond. Main article: Diamond color. Main article: Extraterrestrial diamonds.
A round brilliant cut diamond set in a ring. Main article: Diamond gemstone. Main articles: Diamond cutting and Diamond cut. See also: List of diamond mines and Exploration diamond drilling.
Play media. Main articles: Kimberley Process , Blood diamond , and Child labour in the diamond industry.
Main article: Synthetic diamond. Main article: Diamond simulant. Main article: Diamond enhancement.
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